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(1a) Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or group. It is usually described in terms of traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.
i. Amiable
ii. Attentive
i. Subcultures:
Each culture further comprises of various subcultures such as religion, age, geographical location, gender (male/female), status etc.
ii. Religion (Christianity, Hindu, Muslim, Sikhism, Jainism etc). A Hindu bride wears red, maroon or a bright colour lehanga or saree whereas a Christian bride wears a white gown on her wedding day. It is against Hindu culture to wear white on auspicious occasions. Muslims on the other hand prefer to wear green on important occasions.
iii. Gender (Male/Female)
People generally make fun of males buying fairness creams as in our culture only females are expected to buy and use beauty products. Males are perceived to be strong and tough who look good just the way they are.
iv. Culture:
Our cultural factors are basically basic requirements, values, wants behaviors, and preferences that are observed and absorbed by us from our close family members as well as other significant people around us.
v. Social Class
Each society all over the globe is defined and known by some form of social class. This social class is determined collectively by our family backgrounds, occupation, education, and residence location. Our social class is another component holding the reins for consumer behavior.
i. Psychological Factors
ii. Social Factors
iii. Cultural Factors
iv. Personal Factors
v Economic Factors
i. Psychological Factors
Factors based on human psychology are a major determinant of consumer behavior, and they are on four aspects:
Motivation is the inward drive we have to get what we need. Every person has different needs such as physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Customer perception is a process where a customer collects information about a particular product and interprets the information to make a meaningful image of it.
Refers to the process by which consumers change their behavior after they gain information or experience. It doesn’t just affect what you buy; it affects how you shop.
Attitudes are enduring “mental positions” or emotional feelings, favorable or unfavorable evaluations, and action tendencies people have about products, services, companies, or ideas. Since such beliefs and attitudes make up brand image and affect consumer buying behavior, marketers aim to change the beliefs and attitudes to positive ones through designing special campaigns.
ii. Social Factors
People wish to be socially accepted, so they tend to imitate others including their purchases. Among the most important social factors are:
Buyer behavior is strongly influenced by the family they belong to. A person develops preferences from his childhood by watching family buy products and continues to buy the same products even when they grow up.
*Reference Groups
Reference groups are groups (social groups, workgroups, or close friends) a consumer identifies with and may want to join. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. For example, if the product is visible such as dress or car, then the influence of reference groups will be high.
*Roles and Status
A role consists of the activities that a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a status. For example, if a woman works as a finance manager, she plays two roles: finance manager and mother. Therefore, she is largely influenced by her role and will choose products that communicate it.
iii. Cultural Factors
A group of people is associated with a set of values and ideologies that belong to a particular community. Therefore, cultural factors have a strong influence on consumer buying behavior. They include: Culture, subculture and social class.
iv. Personal Factors
Personal factors vary from one person to another, thereby producing different perceptions and consumer behavior. Some of the personal factors are: Age, occupation and lifestyle, personality.
v. Economic Factors
Economic factors bear a significant influence on the buying decision of a consumer, and they can be on several aspects, as follows: Country Economic Situation, personal income and liquid assets.

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